Main Timeline of Significant Events

This list was developed by the Computer History Museum's Storage Subsystems Working Group.

1951 Univac Uniservo I First tape drive
1951 Univac 1
First data transfer overlapped with CPU processing
1959 IBM 709 First direct memory access transfer by peripheral to/from memory
1961 IBM Stretch Storage Subsystem First fault tolerant storage subsystem, 40 bit parallel transfer, used 7 bit error correcting code (ECC) to correct failures.
1962 NCR CRAM (Card Random Access Memory System) First commercially significant Bulk Storage Subsystem
1965 IBM S/360 Selector Channel Standard I/O architecture for a wide range of peripherals allowed wide range of system performances.
1971DEC PDP 11/20 UnibusEstablished widely used and copied subsystem interface
1978STK 4305First solid state disk drive.
1978 Memorex 3770 First caching disk controller with both write thru and write back.
1983 DEC VAX/HSC50 Established storage networking model for block data transfer
1983 DEC HSC50/RA8x & 9x disk/R9x tape First multiple storage device serial interface
1983 DEC HSC50/RA8x & 9x disk mirrors First subsystem? mirror for fault tolerance; later called RAID 1.
1985IBM 3480 Model A22 Control Unit & Model B22 Tape UnitMultiple data stream fault tolerance – two out of 18 heads could fail.
1986 SCSI Common Command Set (v4b and later) Creation of SCSI standard for high performance interchange.
1987 Conner CP341 Drive Emergence of ATA (IDE) as widely used interface.
1987 STK 4400 Automated Tape Cartridge System Most commercially significant Bulk Storage Subsystem.
Array Technology – STK AlpineAn early, perhaps first, commercial RAID 5 product that was OEM’ed to STK by Array Technology
1989 SUN NFS & Auspex 5000 Established Network Attached Storage business model
1990 EMC Symmetrix 4200 Breakthrough product in use of small form factor drives in mainframe storage.
Brocade Silkworm 1000 Fibre Channel SAN Created block transfer storage networking model

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