|1962||NCR CRAM (Card Random Access Memory) System|
|First commercially significant Bulk Storage Subsystem|
Why it's important
NCR was the first to fully incorporate Bulk Storage as an integral element of the system (online inquiries) rather than a special function.
For detailed discussion see discussion at: STK 4400 Automated Cartridge System
Rash, KH, "NCR;s Card Random Access Memory (CRAM)" Disc File Applications, American Data Processing Inc., Detroit MI, (c) 1964, p. 134-6